“Why would you want to leave a good thing?” Factors That Contribute to the Turnover Intentions

governement “JIATFS” Joint Task Force South in Key West Florida. We currently have a 10% turnover rate but if other could leave tomorrow they would. I will upload my SMR form. This will be the outline. The topic I would to address is: Introduction of the Problem; Problem statement; Purpose of the study; Theorical Framework (Public Service Motivation); Rationale; Assumptions and limitations and conclusion.

a.k.a. “Research Plan”
School of Public Service Leadership

Scientific Merit Process
Learners who are doing action research for their dissertation will use this form to go through the process of scientific merit review. The goals of this process are: (1) to facilitate the planning of the details of your action research project, (2) to ensure that the proposed project has rigor and allows for scientific merit review, and (3) to facilitate your progress through the dissertation. This is not an addition to your dissertation but rather a step to assist you in obtaining mentor, committee, school, and IRB approval more efficiently. You must obtain mentor, committee, and school approval of your Research Plan before submitting your IRB application.

Scientific Merit Criteria
The following criteria will be used to establish scientific merit. The purpose of the review will determine if the proposed project:

1.    Contributes to society by improving a practice
2.    Documents need for change by utilizing evidence-based needs assessment
3.    Meets certain “Hallmarks” of a good action research project including:
a.    Action research design
i.    Practical
ii.    Participatory
iii.    Defined Action Plan

Scientific Merit Approval
Your completed SMART form will be approved, not approved, or deferred for major or minor revisions. Your committee will use a checklist to determine if the study meets the criteria for scientific merit and the committee will provide specific feedback designed to identify any issues that need to be resolved related to the scientific merit. You will have up to three opportunities to submit this form for committee approval.

Obtaining scientific merit approval does not guarantee you will obtain IRB approval. The IRB review will focus on ethical issues. A detailed ethical review will be conducted during the process of IRB approval.

Recommendations for How to Use This Form
The SMART form is intended to help you and your mentor plan the design and details of your dissertation. Once your mentor approves your SMART form, your entire committee will review the form for scientific merit. When the entire committee approves your SMART form, then it will be submitted for school approval. It is recommended that you use this form in a step-by-step way to help plan your design. Expect that you will go through a few revisions before your mentor and committee approve this form.
Tips for filling out the SMART form:
•    Prepare your answers in a separate Word document, as editing and revising will be easier.
•    Copy/paste items into the right-hand fields when they are ready.
•    Don’t delete the descriptions in the left column!
•    Don’t lock the form, as that will stop you from editing and revising within the form.
•    Leave no blank spaces in the form. If an item does not apply to your study, type “NA” in its field.
•    Read the item descriptions carefully. Items request very specific information. Be sure you understand what is asked (Good practice for your IRB application!).
•    Use primary sources to the greatest extent possible as references. Textbooks (Patton, Leedy and Ormrod, etc.) are not acceptable as the only references supporting methodological and design choices. Use them to track down the primary sources.

Upcoming Milestone Steps:

Milestone Group 1

Milestone 1: Learner Completed CITI Modules

Milestone 2: Committee approved topic (Sections 1 & 2 of SMART form)

Milestone 3: Mentor Approved Research Plan (complete SMART form)
Milestone Group 2

Milestone 4: Committee Approved Research Plan

Milestone 5: School Approved Research Plan

Milestone 6: University Approved IRB

Milestone 7: Committee Conference Call

Section #1    To be completed by Learner
1.1 Learner Name    Dorothy “Kaprina” Worthy
1.3 Learner Email    [email protected];[email protected] 1.4 Learner Phone    305-293-5806 work; 404-931-4807
1.5 Mentor Name/Email    Dr. Rudolph Ryser
[email protected]
(Mentor/Chair of Committee)

1.6 Committee Member #1 Name/Email    Dr. Carol Becker
[email protected]

1.7 Committee Member #2 Name/Email    Dr. Arthur Gaffrey
[email protected]

1.8 Dissertation Title    “Why would you want to leave a good thing?” Factors That Contribute to the Turnover Intentions
1.9 Site Selected    Joint Interagency Task Force South

1.10 Contact Info for Site Approver & Expected Approval Date    Patricia Mailer
Chief of Human Resources
[email protected]
(305) 293-5363
Section #2    To be completed by Learner

2.1 Project

Write approximately one paragraph that describes the action research project and the basis for it being addressed.

This Action Research study will explore ”Why Joint Interagency Task Force South (JIATFS) can not retain employees”. The Joint Interagency Task Force South (JIATFS) is a governmental institution that is located in Florida; more specifically at Navel Air Station Key West. It is an anti-illicit trafficking unit, whose main function is to promote security in the state by countering illicit trafficking targets. Given the sensitivity of this service department, the government goes an extra mile in ensuring that the persons best suited for this kind of job are employed. A lot of time and money is therefore spent on the recruiting exercises for JIAFS in a bid to obtain and retain the best skilled people to accomplish the goals and mission of the agency.  Many public organizations are developing new strategies to draw-in the next generation of employees in the height of increasing retirements among Baby Boomers. This task has become more difficult as the interest in government employment declines among young adults (Lewis & Frank, 2002). JIATF can overcome this situation and find individuals who are best suited for public sector work. According to Lewis and Frank, failing at this task will increase the costs of low job satisfaction and high turnover. This project could provide results to improve the current turnover intentions at JIATFS.

Lewis, G. B., & Frank, S. A. (2002). Who wants to work for
government? Public Administration Review, 62,

2.2 Contribution to Society

Using citations, answer the following questions in order:

1. How does your project improve a current practice?

2. If your action research project is successful, how could your project impact your field of interest?

3. What are the practical implications of your project? For example, what will be the impact of this project on your sample, your site location, or your workplace?

1. Voluntary turnover is a major concern for organizations, because losing talented workers can decrease productivity and simultaneously increase costs, as new employees have to be recruited and trained (Brown, Garino, and Martin 2009; Moynihan and Landuyt 2008). In order to minimize turnover, organizations could implement a sophisticated human resource retention strategies that include, mapping a career path for new employees as well as searching for people who fit the organization’s culture (Siegfried 2008). Human resource managers and recruiting professionals may take into great consideration the factors that guarantee employee satisfaction so as to create a healthy work environment. This can only be achieved by getting an insight on what causes employees to quit a workplace. Once an understanding has been obtained on what the employees are looking for then it is possible to improve the current conditions of the work place and therefore avert unnecessary loss of skilled employees.

2.  Scholars suggest that PSM can be used as a tool to find individuals who are best suited for public service work (Perry & Wise, 1990). A successful action research project could constructively affect the morale at JIATF, therefore, enhancing the commitment and motivation in role, improve competence, increase job satisfaction, personal confidence, improve work relationships and decrease turnover intentions.

3. This agency as well as similar federal agencies are faced with a growing problem how to retain good talent. High turnover is a lagging indicator of employee dissatisfaction in a work unit and can suggest problems with the management skills of leaders or supervisors, the nature of the workplace environment, or systems and processes (Jagger, 2013). For example, while attrition of new hires means a loss of the considerable investment expended to hire them —literally, money down the drain—it also can indicate weaknesses in the agency’s hiring and on-boarding processes, or shortcomings in supervision. Therefore, the impact of understanding the reasons why individual employees and groups of employees leave could save the organization a lot of money. It can also be used as a tool to improve the current practices at JIATFS and improve the workplace environment as needed (Jagger, 2013).

Brown, Sarah, Gaia Garino, and Christopher Martin. 2009. ‘‘Firm
Performance and Labour Turnover: Evidence From the 2004
Workplace Employee Relations Survey.’’ Economic Model-
ling 26:689–95.
Jaggar, Sarah. 2013. “Understand Attrition; Improve Federal
Employee Retention.” PA Times 36, no. 4: 3-25.
Moynihan, Donald P., and Noel Landuyt. 2008. ‘‘Explaining
Turnover Intention in State Govern- ment: Examining the
Roles of Gender, Life Cycle, and Loyalty.’’ Review of
Public Personnel Administration 28:120–43.
Perry, J., & Wise, L. (1990). The motivational basis of public
service. Public Administration Review, 50, 367-373.
Siegfried, Robert L. 2008. ‘‘Mapping a Career Path for Attracting
and Retaining Talent.’’Financial Executive 24:52–5.

2.3 Need and Evidence to Make Change

Provide current information on your needs assessment or analysis for change. Include the cost-benefit analysis if indicated by design.

Government Agencies spend enormous amounts of time, energy and resources to hire and train employees. The organization goal is to have the best fit people with the right skills in the right places at the right time to accomplish their mission. However some federal managers, human resources (HR) professionals and workforce planners often fail to focus on retaining both the newly hired and key experienced workers already on the job. Agency leaders hardly ever focus on the fact that attrition and retention rates are important indicators of the overall health of their organization (Jaggar, 2013).

It is important that the skilled workforce that has been hired be trained, nurtured and well taken care of in order to prevent a situation that would be a total waste of the great investment that was input during the recruitment process. Depending on skill and responsibility, voluntary turnover can be as high as 200 percent of an employee’s salary (Griffith and Hom 2001). More focus could be on how to retain the skilled work force that has been hired as well as old employees that have great skills and experience. Employee satisfaction would ensure that the work force is retained (Jagger, 2013).

Griffith, Rodger W., and Peter W. Hom. 2001. Retaining Valued
Employees. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Jaggar, Sarah. 2013. “Understand Attrition; Improve Federal
Employee Retention.” PA Times 36, no. 4: 3-25.

2.4 Theoretical Foundation

Describe the theory or theories that serve as the backbone of your project. Provide references for each theory.
Public Service Motivation Theory

The theoretical framework emphasizes the relationship of public service motivation and turnover intentions.  The federal service faces several obstacles in attracting, retaining, and motivating high-quality employees. Furthermore, a qualitative case study will evaluate the relationship between employee satisfaction and turnover intentions. Public service motivation is characterized as unselfish intentions that motivate individuals to serve the public interest. Many believe that PSM has an important impact on the characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors of public employees (Perry & Wise, 1990). This research will attempt to truly capture results that JIATF can use to improve the current conditions of the work place to increase job satisfaction and decrease turnover intentions.

Perry, J., & Wise, L. (1990). The motivational basis of public
service. Public Administration Review, 50, 367-373.

2.5 Researcher Positionality:

•    Insider
•    Insider w/collaboration
•    Reciprocal collaboration
•    Outsider, collaboration w/ insiders

Define your role, position, and how positionality will impact your research study.


As an insider with collaboration, the researcher will explore the effects of leadership development through a mentoring program at Joint Interagency Task Force South (JIATFS). I have been an employee as a Staff Accountant for at JIATFS for four years. As an insider with collaboration, the researcher will have three key advantages (a) having a greater understanding of the culture being studied; (b) not altering the flow of social interaction unnaturally; and (c) having an established intimacy which promotes both the telling and the judging of truth (Bonner and Tolhurst, 2002). The primary focus of the researcher is to be as unbiased as possible in order to not influence the outcomes of their investigation.  As a facilitator, she will act as a catalyst to assist stakeholders to define their problems clearly and to monitor and support their activity as they work toward effective resolution of the issues that provide the focus of their investigations (Stringer, 2013).

Bonner, A., & Tolhurst, G. (2002). Insider-outsider perspectives of
participant observation. Nurse Researcher, 9(4), 7-19.
Stringer, E. (2013). Action Research [VitalSouce bookshelf
version]. Retrieved from


2.6 Research Questions and Project Goals/Objectives

List the research questions or project goals. These should align with the need for organizational structure or activities/outcomes of the project.

Research questions
What factors contribute to an employee reason for leaving an organization?
What benefits of value to employees can an organization implement to make it a more suitable place to work?

Section #3    To be completed by Learner
3.1 Action Plan

Provide detailed steps to implementing your research plan. This should read like a recipe for conducting your project.
Be sure to include all the necessary details so that someone else would be able to follow this and replicate the project exactly.

3.2 Results

Describe your program evaluation and dissemination of results plan.

3.3. Measures and Instruments

List and describe each data collection instrument or measurement tool you will use. This includes questionnaires, formal interview protocols, forms, etc. Include:

a.    Data type(s) generated by each measure
b.    Available psychometric information (including validity and reliability coefficients)
c.    How this data will be used

Attach a copy of each instrument you plan to use as an appendix to your SMART form.

3.4 If Modifying an Instrument:

Describe any pilot test or field test that may be required for any instruments. Type NA if not applicable. Field tests must be done:

a.    For new instruments or questions developed by the learner.
b.    With expert panelists. Field tests require no IRB review. A pilot test requires IRB review.

3.5 Assumptions

Identify the key assumptions of the project; use citations to support their adoption.

3.6 Limitations

Evaluate the weaknesses of your project at this time. Indicate areas to be improved before starting your project and areas that cannot be improved. Give reasons for not redesigning to address any of the limitations identified.

3.7 Population and Sampling

Describe the key stakeholders or population of your project. Briefly describe the characteristics of this sample, including:

a.    Demographics
b.    Inclusion criteria, if any
c.    Exclusion criteria, if any

Describe how you plan to select the sample. Include the steps you will take to include participants.

3.8 Sample Size

What is the expected sample size? Provide citations to support the sample size decision.

3.9 Expected Site

Describe the organization or site(s) from which you expect to draw your sample.

3.10 Site Permission

Who is authorized to provide permission to use this organization or site? Does the site have an IRB? What do you need to do to obtain permission to access the stakeholders, population, or data source?

3.11 Participant Contact

How will potential participants first be contacted? How will participants be contacted following the study?

3.12 Data Analysis

Describe analysis procedures for each data type including: audiotapes, transcripts, videotape, field notes, photos, descriptive analysis, other quantitative analysis, etc.

Describe all methods and procedures for data analysis including:

a.    Types of data to be analyzed
b.    Organization of raw data
c.    Management and processing of data
d.    Preparation of data for analysis
e.    Storage and protection of data

3.13 Ethical Considerations

Describe any ethical considerations given the sample population and/or topic. Please explain as fully as possible.

Describe any ethical concerns about defined researcher positionality. Address any potential for coercion.

3.14 Risk Assessment

Is your study more than minimal risk? Refer to your CITI course for more information about minimal risk. Please explain.

To be completed by Mentor
Mentor: Name    Member #1: Name    Member #2: Name    Date & Reason for Deferral (if needed)
Topic Approval
SMART Approval
First Review
Second Review (if needed)
Third Review (if needed)
Faculty Chair consult (if needed)

Please attach the formal letter requesting permission, and letter of approval (on letterhead) to the end of this SMART form prior to submission for School approval.

MENTORS: Once you submit Milestone #4 – Committee Approved SMART form – please send this completed SMART form to: [email protected] for School approval.

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